Religion in HBO's Carnivāle

I. Books

Addison, C.G. The Knight Templar History. New York: AMS, 1978.

-A history of the Knights Templar. Used in relation to their appearance and use of symbols in Carnivale.

Guénon, René. Fundamental Symbols: The Universal Language of Sacred Science. Cambridge: Quinta Essentia, 1995.

-The intrepretations of many religious symbols. Specifically concerned with the 'Tree of Knowledge".

Nicholson, Helen. The Knights Templar: A New History. England: Sutton, 2001.

-A second source containing the history of the Knights Templar and their relation to Christianity.

Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey. Avatar and Incarnation: The Divine in Human Form in the World's Religions. New York: Oneworld Publications, 1997.

-A background and history of the Hindu belief of avatara. Used in relation to Carnivales' villian and hero.


II. Journal Articles

Holland, Cecelia. "Firebrands of the Franks." The Quarterly Journal of Military History
     5.1 (1992): 100-109.
-An in depth history of the Knights Templar
Sheth, Noel. "Hindu Avatara and Christian Incarnation:

     Comparison."Philosophy East And West.

     52.1 (2002): 98-125.


-A second source in relation to avataras.


III. Websites

Biesen, C. Van Den. “Apocalypse.” New Advent. 2007. Catholic Encyclopedia.

     8 Oct.2007.<>


-Description of the events contained in the Book of Revelations. Used in relation to thematic elements, specifically in terms of the atomic bomb.


Chocano, Carina. "Carnivale" TV Review Sept. 2003.

    Entertainment Weekly.<,,482486,00.html>


-A TV review of Carnivāle


Dan Knauf Interview." The Bally. 15 Feb. 2005. CarnyCon 2005. 27 Sept.

     2007. <>


-Interview with Carnivale creator Dan Knauf about what he feels are the symbols and metaphors in Carnivale.


Easton, Karyn. Tarot Card Meanings. 6 Oct. 2007.



-The meanings associated with the cards contained in the Major Arcana deck of tarot cards. Used in relation to the tarot card seen in the opening credits as well as throughout the show.


Havrilesky, Heather. "Gutsy -- or just gusty?"



- TV review for Carnivāle HBO: Carnivale. 8 Oct. 2007.

-HBO's Official website for Carnivale. Used to reference specific episodes.
Hillman, Dr. Adrian Vaughan. Tarot Truths. 3 Oct. 2007.
-A history of tarot cards and their uses.
Stanley, Alessandra. "Carnies, Dust Bowl, Apocalypse." Arts 12 Sept. 2003
      The New York Times. <
-A newspaper article addressing Carnivāle
"The Philosophy of the Descension (avatar) of God, and Bhagwan Ram and Krishn.
     2001. 2 Oct. 2007. <

-A third source on avataras.
Thomson, Sandra. "When Tarot Comes to Television". Tarot Reflections.
     3 Nov.2003.American Tarot Association.25 Sept. 2007.
-The use of tarot cards specifically in Carnivale.
"Mythology of Carnivale." 9 Oct. 2007. Wikipedia. 10 Oct, 2007.
-Wikipedia article concerning myth and religion in Carnivale. Used for quick reference for individual topics.

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